Posts

Digging Deeper: Christ the Creator

Author: Mr. Kenneth Frank | Faculty in Theology, Living Education


Estimated Reading Time: 7 min

Did you know that our Lord Jesus Christ is the one of whom it is spoken, “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth” (Genesis 1:1 KJV)?

Many people think of the Creator is the one Christians now know as “God the Father.” However, New Testament Scriptures clarify that the Father created all things by Jesus Christ, the Son of God (Hebrews 1:1-2; Ephesians 3:8-9). This is such an important doctrine it is surprising that more Christians are not taught this. In this Digging Deeper, we will explore this wonderful truth that should encourage us to appreciate this intricate and magnificent creation from our Savior – and to take better care of it (Genesis 2:15).

Colossians 1:15 declares that Christ is “the image of the invisible God.” Then follow our keystone Scriptures from which we will launch our study about Christ’s preeminence in Creation: Colossians 1:16-17 KJV “For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him:  (17)  And he is before all things, and by him all things consist.” The NKJ Study Bible notes that “This early Christian hymn emphasizes the superiority of Christ over all creation” (Tecarta Bible App). 

Joseph Henry Thayer in his Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament explains that the Greek words for “all things” in v. 16 are ta panta, which mean “the universe of things,”  or “the totality of created things” (Bible Analyzer 5.4.1.22). The NIV Study Bible notes that “Seven times in vv. 15 – 20 Paul mentions ‘all creation,’ ‘all things’ and ‘everything,’ thus stressing that Christ is supreme over all” (Tecarta Bible App). Realizing this, we can now better appreciate that the One who sacrificed His life for us to become our Savior was also the Creator of Genesis 1:1.

Notice that Jesus Christ is the Creator, not the created, as some heretical teachers, such as Arians, have proclaimed. This explanation from The Henry Morris Study Bible elaborates: “Jesus Christ certainly is not a created being—not even the first created being—as many have argued, for the obvious reason that He Himself is the Creator of all things in heaven and earth, material and spiritual, visible or invisible. Only God can create, and God did not create Himself!” (Master Books, 2071, p. 1831). 

The Gospel of John begins with this teaching because it is fundamental for understanding who Jesus Christ is as God and Savior. Speaking of the one called the Word, notice what John writes: (John 1:3 KJV)  “All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.” Notice further down (John 1:10 KJV):  “He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not.” The world did not know its Creator and, through its rebellion, offended Him! Nonetheless, when a person repents and is converted, he/she …”is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him” (Colossians 3:10). How forgiving and generous is our Creator and Savior!

Notice that creation includes not only the things visible but things invisible as well, including the angelic world. Colossians 1:16 proclaims that Christ created the invisible creatures and their thrones, dominions, principalities, and powers. Explaining these various terms, The KJV Study Bible notes: “‘Thrones’ refer to angels who sit on thrones as rulers; ‘dominions’ refer to domains or kingdoms over which these heavenly beings reign, ‘principalities’ refer to rulers, and ‘powers’ refer to angelic monarchs who wield regal power. Since Christ created these various ranks of angels, He is supreme over them. Striking a blow at the Colossian heresy advocating angel worship (2:18), this text forbids Christians to pay homage to angels or other heavenly beings created by God” (Tecarta Bible App).

Worship of these angelic creatures was part of the multi-faceted Colossian heresy. The NKJ Study Bible explains Colossians 1:16 further: “This idea is in direct contradiction to the false teaching, later known as Gnosticism, that was developing in the Colossian church. In general, Gnostics believed that various angelic beings were the creators of the earth and that Christ was one among many of these angels” (Ibid.). 

These angelic designations are also a warning to Christians. The ESV Study Bible adds: “Paul is using the current Jewish terms for various rankings of angels (although he doesn’t explain their relative ranks). His emphasis here may be on the evil angels, since they play a significant part in this letter (Col. 2:8, 10, 15, 20). This would not mean, however, that Jesus created evil angels; all spiritual powers were created by Jesus, but some later chose to rebel against God and so to become evil” (Tecarta Bible App). 

These wicked angels no doubt rebelled with Lucifer. Here is what The Henry Morris Study Bible reports: “The pagan world, whether of the ancient Greeks or of the modern New Agers, has always believed in angels, demons or spirit beings of various types and powers, and it is vital for us to understand that such beings do exist and can wield great influence in the visible world as well as the invisible. Many have rebelled against Him, both men and angels, always justifying themselves by maintaining they are the products of some cosmic evolutionary process instead of creation by the eternal, transcendent God.” (Master Books, 2071, p. 1832).

Colossians 1:17 adds: “…by him [Christ] all things consist.” Bullinger’s Companion Bible explains that the word consist means, “cohere, or hold together” (e-Sword 12.1). The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges elaborates on this word: “I.e., literally, stand together, hold together. The Latin-English ‘consist‘ (Latin versions, constant) exactly renders the Greek. ‘He is the principle of cohesion in the Universe. He impresses upon creation that unity and solidarity which makes it a cosmos instead of a chaos’ (Lightfoot)” (Ibid.). If the Creator were not alive, our universe would come apart. Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible explains this phrase in detail: “They not only subsist in their beings, but consist in their order and dependences. He not only created them all at first, but it is by the word of his power that they are still upheld, Hebrews 1:3. The whole creation is kept together by the power of the Son of God, and made to consist in its proper frame. It is preserved from disbanding and running into confusion” (Ibid.). Christ is not only the Creator but the Conserver as well. Robertson’s Word Pictures adds, “Christ is the controlling and unifying force in nature. The Gnostic philosophy that matter is evil and was created by a remote aeon is thus swept away. The Son of God’s love is the Creator and the Sustainer of the universe which is not evil” (Ibid.).

Colossians 1:16 concludes by stressing that Christ created all things for Himself! The Preacher’s Complete Homiletical Commentary edited by Joseph S. Exell states, “The most elaborate and majestic machinery of the universe and the most highly gifted intelligence alike exist only to serve the ultimate purpose of creation’s Lord. All created things gather their significance, dignity, and glory by their connection with Him…It is a narrow philosophy that teaches that all things were made for man. The grand end of all our endeavours should ever be the glory of Christ” (e-Sword 12.1). This refers to the grand scheme known as the salvation plan of God. The universe is here for a reason. All of us are potentially part of this redemption venture. Christ intends to add to the Famly of God and restore His Creation. Already, Christ has given us derivative and limited creative powers that depend on His sustaining the universe. We have a choice whether to enter His eternal program or to oppose it as did Satan and the wicked angels. Christ intends to share eternity with those He has redeemed. Prepare yourself for a future of expanding creativity!


Digging Deeper: Wisdom as a Tree of Life

Author: Mr. Kenneth Frank | Faculty, Living Education


Estimated Reading Time: 7 min.

Did you know that biblical wisdom is connected to the tree of life?

No doubt, all of us are familiar with the tree of life offered to our original parents in the the Book of Genesis. Did you realize that the Bible refers to the tree of life after Genesis? References to it appear in Proverbs and Revelation. However, those in Proverbs take on a slightly different concept than its appearance in Genesis. This Digging Deeper will explore one verse in Proverbs to broaden our understanding on this well-known phrase.

In Proverbs 3, God inspires a section dealing with the blessing offered to those who find wisdom. Here is the beginning verse of this section: Proverbs 3:13 KJV: “Happy is the man that findeth wisdom, and the man that getteth understanding.” Our focus verse describes wisdom: Proverbs 3:18 KJV “She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her: and happy is every one that retaineth her.” Let’s explore what is the connection between the original tree of life and wisdom in this passage.

There are six different Hebrew words translated “wisdom” in the Book of Proverbs. The Hebrew word for wisdom in Proverbs 3:13 is chokmah, which occurs 141 times in the Hebrew Bible and almost always is translated “wisdom.” Stephen D. Renn’s Expository Dictionary of Bible Words provides a definition: “Wisdom refers to knowledge coupled with an inner quality that embodies a heart and life in conformity with the purposes and character of God” (Hendrickson Publishers, 2006, p. 1050). Expanding this further, The Brown-Driver-Briggs Lexicon reports that, in this context, it refers to ethical and religious wisdom and that “…its fundamental principle is to fear God Psalm 111:10; Proverbs 15:33; Job 28:18” (Bible Analyzer 5.4.1.22). The Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature by McClintock and Strong further notes that it “…in a general sense, is a comprehensive knowledge of things in their proper nature and relations, together with the power of combining them in the most useful manner. Among the Hebrews, the term ‘wisdom’ comprehended a wide circle of virtues and mental endowments (Exodus 28:3; 31:6; 1 Kings 3:28; 4:29-34), and its precise import in the Scriptures can only be ascertained by a close attention to the context.” (e-Sword 12.1). One of the keys to effective Bible study is understanding the context in which a particular verse stands.

Wisdom is Solomon’s main theme in the Book of Proverbs and he returns to it often. The Expositor’s Bible, edited by W. Robertson Nicholl, in its annotation on Proverbs 3:13 explains its connection to submission to God: “Now, the supreme bliss of the heavenly wisdom is that it leads us into this detailed obedience to the law which is our life; it sets us under the immediate and unbroken control of God” (Bible Analyzer 5.4.1.22). Notice that this source upholds God’s law! Obedience to God’s law (torah) is what makes our lives meaningful and purposeful because they will be directed according to God’s will. This reference work then relates wisdom to Proverbs 3:7 KJV: “Be not wise in thine own eyes: fear the LORD, and depart from evil.” The fear of God is reverential awe and worship; it should even invoke terror if we disobey Him (2 Corinthians 5:11). Notice Galatians 6:7 KJV:  “Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.” 

Now we need to connect wisdom with the tree of life in Proverbs 3:18. Albert Barnes’ Notes on the Bible comments on the tree of life: “This and the other references in Proverbs (11:30; 13:12; 15:4) are the only allusions in any book of the Old Testament, after Genesis, to the ‘tree’ itself, or to its spiritual significance” (e-Sword 12.1). However, the Book of Revelation returns to the image of the tree of life, connecting it more to its significance in Genesis. Barnes continues, “Wisdom is the ‘tree of life,’ giving a true immortality. The symbol entered largely into the religious imagery of Assyria, Egypt, and Persia. Philo, going a step further, found in the two trees the ideal representatives of speculative knowledge and moral wisdom; and the same image subserves a higher purpose in the promises and the visions of Revelation 2:7; Revelation 22:2.” (Ibid.).

The College Press Bible Study Textbook Series provides us a modern comparison for the phrase “tree of life”: “Like ‘Fountain of Youth’ in our language, so ‘Tree of Life’ in Bible days stood for something very desirable” (e-Sword 12.1). People have sought the proverbial fountain of youth for generations. The NET Bible explains the use of tree of life in Proverbs 3:18: “The metaphor compares wisdom to the symbol of vitality and fullness of life” (e-Sword 12.1). Living full lives resulting in energized vitality flow from biblical wisdom. Joseph S. Exell informs us in The Pulpit Commentary that “This expression obviously refers to ‘the tree of life’ (etshakayyim), which was placed in the midst of the garden of Eden, and conferred immortality on those who ate of its fruit. (Genesis 2:9; 3:22) So Wisdom becomes equally life giving to those who lay hold on her, who taste of her fruit. She communicates life in its manifold fulness and richness…to those who seize her firmly”  (Bible Analyzer 5.4.1.22). Wisdom becomes a “tree of life” to us when we heed it, which results in happiness, prosperity, and godliness. Exell continues, “The Authorized Version [KJV] aptly renders the original. The necessity for ‘retaining’ as well as ‘laying hold’ of Wisdom is pointed out. The verb (tamak) is ‘to hold fast something taken.’ Such will be blessed who hold Wisdom tenaciously and perseveringly” (Ibid.). 

The Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary adds another vital detail: “‘Lay hold’ (machaziquim) – literally, lay hold with a tenacious grasp, not to be severed from her: from a Hebrew root ‘strong.’ Compare Proverbs 11:30; 13:12; 15:4, for similar references to ‘the tree of life.’ Wisdom brings life to her possessors, as the tree of life in Paradise would have done to our first parents, but that they forfeited it (Genesis 2:9; 3:22-24)” (e-Sword 12.1). Imagine how different life would be in our world if our original parents had obeyed God in that original test. The College Press Bible Study Textbook Series continues this admonition: “Our verse points out the importance both of laying hold upon (obtaining) wisdom and then of retaining it. Unfortunately, many never obtain it, and sadly some who have had it have not retained it later. So, we should work to possess it, and we should be careful not to let it get away from us” (Ibid.).

Adam Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible connects biblical wisdom to true religion: “The blessings which wisdom – true religion – gives to men, preserve them in life, comfort them through life, cause them to triumph in death, and ensure them a glorious immortality” (e-Sword 12.1). Isn’t this what all of us want? God has not hidden this truth from us. The Seventh-day Adventist Commentary, Vol 3 takes us back to the beginning: “Because our first parents rejected wisdom as a guide and followed Satan, none of us has been privileged to taste of the tree of life. Divine wisdom will lead us into a way of life that will have much the same result. It will give us a fuller and longer life in this world, and gain for us access to the tree of life itself in the world to come (Revelation 22:14).” (Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1976, p. 957). However, there are necessary steps along the way: repentance and faith. Exell’s The Pulpit Commentary in its comment on Proverbs 3:18 adds this connection of the tree of life to the tree on which Jesus died to provide our atonement, redemption, and salvation (1 Peter 2:24) : “Old ecclesiastical writers saw in the expression a reference to Christ’s redeeming work. ‘The tree of life is the cross of Christ…’ (quoted by Delitzsch)” (Bible Analyzer 5.4.1.22). Only through Christ, who is our Wisdom (1 Corinthians 1:30) shall we finally have access to the ultimate “tree of life” (Revelation 2:7). 


Digging Deeper: The Secret of God

Author: Mr. Kenneth Frank | Faculty, Living Education


Estimated Reading Time: 7 min

Did you know that Job, an ancient Old Testament character, believed he had lost the “secret of God” during his prolonged trial?

The Book of Job, perhaps the oldest book of our Old Testament, narrates his story. It introduces him as a righteous and devout man enjoying God’s blessing of prosperity and happiness upon his family. However, within a short time his possessions, children, health, and the respect from his wife and closest friends are taken from him. This story is certainly one of the saddest and most tragic accounts of a man who lost it all – except his life. He lamented his past prosperous life but one of the many things he longed to see restored most was “the secret of God.” To what did he refer?

Our home base verse for this study is Job 29:4 KJV “As I was in the days of my youth, when the secret of God was upon my tabernacle [dwelling]…” The secret of God was one of several things Job lamented in his parable (Job 29:1) that he had lost and longed to have restored. He could not understand why a just and loving God would deprive him of the very blessings that signaled he was “perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed evil” (Job 1:1). This mysterious book is part of a set of Old Testament books called “wisdom literature” that ask difficult and complex questions of life. This book has elicited much discussion and printed commentary trying to understand the purpose of Job’s suffering. Nonetheless, this book is still a favorite in “The Bible as Literature” university classes for its exploration of human suffering.

Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible explains the special privilege of experiencing the secret of God: “The secret of the Lord is said to be with those that fear him, for he shows them that in his covenant which others see not”, Psa 25:14. God communicates his favor and grace to his people, and receives the return of their devotion in a way secret to the world (e-Sword 12.1). The phrase “the secret of God” appears in only two verses in the Book of Job, using the same Hebrew words for “secret” and “God.” These two verses are Job15:8 and Job29:4. The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew Lexicon defines the word for “secret” (sod) as “familiar converse with God, intimacy” and the word for “God”, which is eloah, is defined as “God” or “a false god” (Bible Analyzer 5.4.1.22). Our focus for this Digging Deeper column will be on the word sod for “secret.”  

Job believed he had lost the intimate fellowship with the God that he had served faithfully for so long. Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible describes the secret of God as a time when “…God conversed freely with him, as one bosom-friend with another. He knew God’s mind, and was not in the dark about it, as, of late, he had been” (e-Sword 12.1). Job thought he had a close association with the Almighty but now could not understand why He seemed to have abandoned him (Job 29:5). That special relationship had changed and Job did not know why.

In the Ancient Near East, councils of men as the leaders of communities would meet together to discuss important local issues. The Hebrew word sod has this fascinating background to Job’s thought. The Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary offers this note for Job 15:8: “The Hebrew means properly the cushions on which a divan [committee] of councilors in the East usually sit. God’s servants are admitted to God’s secrets (Psa 25:14; Gen 18:17; Joh 15:15)” (e-Sword 12.1). Albert Barnes Notes on the Bible explains that the Hebrew word for “secret” can be either the cushions on which they sit or the council members (Ibid.). Job lamented that the secret of God was no longer upon his dwelling – that he was no longer in intimate association with his God who shared private conversations with those on His council. Job once knew God’s thinking due to this special relationship. At that time he was part of God’s inner circle, but no longer. Now amid his terrible suffering, Job could not understand God’s permitting it. He thought he did not deserve it. The good news about Job is that it appears that by the end of the story the secret of God has again come upon his dwelling.

Cross-references elucidate an application for the secret of God on how we may enjoy this special relationship.  Psa 25:14 KJV declares “The secret of the LORD is with them that fear him; and he will shew them his covenant.” The word for secret is the same Hebrew word used in Job 29:4 referring to a divan or circle of friends deliberating together confidentially. Once again, this depicts the closeness, intimacy of friendship, and fellowship between God and His faithful people. God does not share His secrets with everyone but only with those who fear Him and keep His covenant. This body of chosen people is God’s special assembly: His nation anciently and today His church. Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible comments on this verse: “Those that receive the truth in the love of it, and experience the power of it, best understand the mystery of it. They know the meaning of his providence, and what God is doing with them, better than others… They know by experience the blessings of the covenant and the pleasure of that fellowship which gracious souls have with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ. This honour have all his saints” (e-Sword 12.1). 

A similar statement comes from Pro 3:32 KJV: “For the froward [perverse, self-willed] is abomination to the LORD : but his secret is with the righteous.” An Old Testament patriarch with whom God had such a close relationship was Abraham: Gen18:17-19 KJV  “And the LORD said, Shall I hide from Abraham that thing which I do;  (18)  Seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him?  (19)  For I know him, that he will command his children and his household after him, and they shall keep the way of the LORD, to do justice and judgment; that the LORD may bring upon Abraham that which he hath spoken of him.” God shared His secret with Abraham concerning His plan to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah. Abraham was not only a friend of God but also a prophet of God (Gen 20:7). Notice what God says in Amos 3:7 KJV: “Surely the Lord GOD will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto his servants the prophets.” God shares secret counsel with those who have entered His special covenant and are His faithful servants.

This same idea is expressed by Jesus to His followers in our New Testament: Joh 15:15 KJV “Henceforth I call you not servants; for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth: but I have called you friends; for all things that I have heard of my Father I have made known unto you.” What an honor it is to be called Jesus’ friends! Christians are the people with whom He shares His deepest thoughts and promises. He does not do so with everyone but only those with whom He is in covenant. Paul reflects on this special relationship in Col 3:3 KJV: “For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God.” As a result, Paul tells us to set our affection on things which are above (Col 3:1-2). If we do, “When Christ, who is our life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with him in glory” (Col 3:4). Eternally, we shall cherish the secret of God.


Digging Deeper: The Residue of Men

Author: Kenneth Frank | Faculty, Living Education


Estimated Reading Time: 7 min., 48 sec.

Did you know that it was God’s intention from the beginning to include non-Israelites, called Gentiles or the nations, in His plan of salvation?

Though God chose Israel to become a model nation, it always was His will that other peoples would be offered the same salvation. Israel was supposed to become a Godly example that other nations would wish to emulate (Deuteronomy 4:6-8). However, by the time of Jesus, many of the Jewish people (especially the ruling elites) had come to look down upon Gentiles, even referring to them as dogs. Jesus’ preaching to Gentiles during His ministry no doubt raised some eyebrows! This “Digging Deeper” highlights the ministry of the early church to not only preach to the Jew first but also to Gentiles. This is made plain by the ministries of Jesus, Peter, Barnabas, Paul, and others in the Gospels and the Book of Acts.

Acts 15 chronicles the first ministerial conference called to settle a question about whether Gentiles needed first to become Jews before they could become Christians. The hot button issue of the day was the matter of circumcision. For centuries, male converts to the Abrahamic faith needed to be circumcised to become full proselytes. Some former Pharisees in the early church insisted such Gentile converts needed bodily circumcision to enter the Christian faith. Nonetheless, chapter after chapter in the early part of Acts revealed that God gave His Holy Spirit to Gentiles without circumcision, illustrating that now it was circumcision of the heart and not of the flesh that was required (Romans 2:28-29).

After Peter, Barnabas, and Paul testified how God provided His spirit to the Gentiles apart from bodily circumcision, the resident pastor of the Jerusalem church, James, announced the church’s decision that it would not insist upon circumcision of Gentiles. For authority, he turned to the prophets of the Hebrew Bible as evidence that this was God’s will all along (Acts 15:15). Acts 15:17 KJV is especially pertinent: “That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things.” Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible explains James’ pronouncement: “He confirms this with a quotation out of the Old Testament: he could not prove the calling of the Gentiles by a vision, as Peter could, nor by miracles wrought by his hand, as Paul and Barnabas could, but he would prove that it was foretold in the Old Testament, and therefore it must be fulfilled, Acts 15:15” (e-Sword 12.1).

Thayer’s Greek Definitions reports that the word “residue” is a translation of the Greek New Testament word kataloipos that appears only here and means that which is “left remaining” (e-Sword 12.1).  It refers to the faithful remnant of humankind who are not of Israelite descent. The Webster’s 1828 Dictionary definition declares that “residue” comes to English from the Latin neuter residuus and means, “That which remains after a part is taken, separated, removed or designated” (Ibid.). After God had separated Israel, the rest of humankind fit this definition. Thayer then reports that the word “men” in Acts 15:17 is a translation of the word anthropos which means “a human being, whether male or female” (Ibid.).

James only quoted one prophet concerning the welcoming of non-Israelites into the faith but there were several others. Notice that in Acts 15:15 he states, “And to this agree the words of the prophets…” The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges explains: “Only one prophet is here quoted, viz. Amos (Act_9:11-12), but the audience would recall other like passages, as St Paul does Romans 15:9-12, quoting from the books of Moses, David and Isaiah” (e-Sword 12.1). There were numerous Old Testament prophecies about Gentiles entering the faith. Matthew Henry notes that “…most of the Old Testament prophets spoke more or less of the calling in of the Gentiles, even Moses himself, Romans 10:19. It was the general expectation of the pious Jews that the Messiah should be a light to enlighten the Gentiles (Luke 2:32)…” (Ibid.). Here is a partial list of other Old Testament prophecies of Gentiles turning to God:  Isaiah 2:2; 9:2; 11:10; 25:6; 52:15; Jeremiah 4:2; 16:19; Daniel 7:14; Joel 2:28; Zechariah 8:23.

Starting in Acts 15:15, James rephrases Amos; however, the phrasing is quite different. The original passage from Amos 9:11-12 KJV reads,  “In that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, and close up the breaches thereof; and I will raise up his ruins, and I will build it as in the days of old:  (12)  That they may possess the remnant of Edom, and of all the heathen, which are called by my name, saith the LORD that doeth this.” Why James used this passage and modified a few words is critical to note. It was common in the New Testament era for God’s inspired leaders to quote the Old Testament verses freely to fit a new situation. This was done by God’s illumination to expand the application for a later generation. As Chief Editor, God is free to edit His own text.

These New Testament authors also may have been citing a different Hebrew text from the one that is the basis of our English Old Testament. The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, Vol 6 says that James “may have quoted from a form of the Hebrew text that was more closely related to the LXX [Septuagint Greek] than is the Masoretic [the text underlying our English Old Testament]. Discoveries at Qumran have shown that such texts existed for at least parts of the OT” (Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1980, p. 309). What supports this idea is the phrase “I will return” in Acts 15:16. This is “…a favorite Hebrew expression for,  ‘I will do such and such again’…This may be an indication that James quoted the OT in Hebrew'” (Ibid.).

Another possibility is that James is quoting from a Greek translation of the Hebrew text. The NET Bible explains, “James demonstrated a high degree of cultural sensitivity when he cited a version of the text (the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament) that Gentiles would use” (e-Sword 12.1). Why would James quote a Greek version instead of Hebrew? A Popular Commentary on the New Testament edited by Philip Schaff explains, “The LXX. here, as not unfrequently, give a paraphrase rather than a literal translation of the original, and regard ‘Edom’ (a common Rabbinical idea) as a general representative of those who were strangers to the God of Israel. No doubt the LXX. version was quoted by James on account of the many foreign Jews present at the Council; these would be familiar with the Greek Scriptures, not with the original Hebrew” (Ibid.). Joseph S. Excell’s The Pulpit Commentary additionally explains why Edom represents all Gentiles: “Edom, as the nation most hostile to the Jews and furthest from David’s house, is put by a natural figure for the whole Gentile world” (Bible Analyzer 5.4.1.22).

Bob Utley’s You Can Understand the Bible additionally adds another reason why James would choose a Greek translation: “James quotes the Septuagint because in this case it uniquely fits his purpose of expressing the universal nature of God’s promise of redemption” (e-Sword 12.1). In the first century, Greek was a universal language. Matthew Henry explains why God broadened His calling: “The Jews were for many ages so peculiarly favoured that the residue of men seemed neglected; but now God will have an eye to them, and his name shall be called upon by the Gentiles; his name shall be declared and published among them, and they shall be brought both to know his name and to call upon it: they shall call themselves the people of God, and he shall call them so; and thus, by consent of both parties, his name is called upon them” (Ibid.). This was God’s doing since it was His plan since the “beginning of the world” (Acts 15:18).

The ministerial decision on circumcision officially settled the dispute between the Pharisaic element of the church and the new Gentile believers – the “residue of men.” Bob Utley’s You Can Understand the Bible enlarges: “These changes would be devastating to a ‘circumcision party’ of believers. Now the chief Apostle (Peter), the converted rabbi Apostle (Paul), and the leader of the Jerusalem church (James) all agree against them…” (e-Sword 12.1). One of the greatest church controversies was settled simply by referencing its own Holy Book. God’s word settled the matter, as it always must.


Digging Deeper: A Lesson From the Ethiopian Eunuch

Author: Mr. Kenneth Frank | Faculty in Theology, Living Education


Estimated Reading Time: 7 min

Did you know that welcoming instruction in the Bible from others is a desirable and necessary quality for effective Bible study?

There are numerous examples in Scripture, but this article will deal with an incident involving a non-Israelite in the early years of the Church of God. This person realized that his understanding from his reading of the Book of Isaiah was limited and that he needed someone to guide him. The two individuals involved in this account from Acts 8:26-40 are Philip and the Ethiopian eunuch.

We are first introduced to Philip in Acts 6, where he was appointed as one of seven men (later known as deacons) to serve the needy widows of the church. Philip appears next in Acts 8 when he travels to the city of Samaria to preach Christ following a scattering of the church in Jerusalem due to persecution. From here on, some sources refer to him as Philip the Evangelist to distinguish him from the Apostle Philip.

Starting in Acts 8:26 we learn that God’s angel next moves Philip to head south from Jerusalem to Gaza on the main road to Egypt. There he meets a God-fearer (a Gentile who worshiped the God of Israel but was not a full convert) from Ethiopia (Nubia) who is heading home from Jerusalem where he had traveled to worship. This man is described as a eunuch (v. 26), which was either an emasculated man or a high official, who worked closely with the queen as her finance minister. While riding in his chariot (indicating he was a man of means), he reads the scroll of Isaiah (vv. 27-28). It was common then to read aloud. Philip is guided by the Spirit (v. 29) to join this man’s chariot after hearing the Ethiopian’s reading of a particular Messianic passage.

Upon approaching this man’s entourage, Philip asked the man if he understood what he was reading (v. 30). The Ethiopian could have been insulted by such a question, assuming he did not need anyone to teach him God’s written word. John Gill’s Exposition of the Bible characterizes this Ethiopian’s attitude as “…of an excellent spirit and temper; since instead of answering in a haughty and disdainful manner, as great men are too apt to do; and instead of charging Philip with, impertinence and insolence, in interrupting him whilst reading, and putting such a question to him, he expresses himself with great and uncommon modesty; with a sense and confession of his ignorance and incapacity and of the necessity and usefulness of the instructions of men, appointed of God to open and explain the Scriptures…” (e-Sword 12.1).

Instead, the Ethiopian replies in v. 31, “How can I except some man guide me?” He recognized his need for a man of God to teach him the meaning of this passage. The Pulpit Commentary explains his approach: “The humility and thirst for instruction of this great courtier are very remarkable, and the instance of the joint use of the written Word and the living teacher is noteworthy” (e-Sword 12.1). He humbled himself before this man of God, inviting Philip to climb aboard his chariot to provide spiritual instruction. He was reading a passage from Isaiah 53, one of the clearest prophecies of Jesus’ sacrifice, which is requoted in Acts 8:32-33.

In v. 34 the eunuch asked if this passage referred to Isaiah or someone else. This opened the door for Philip to preach to him Jesus as the expected Messiah (v. 35). Philip then asked the man if he believed what he read and the Ethiopian replied that he did and then asked what hindered him from baptism (v. 36). Philip baptizes him after the man professed his faith in Jesus Christ as the Son of God (v. 37). Philip then is instantly guided by the Spirit on to new territory (v. 39). The eunuch never saw Philip again but continued his journey home rejoicing (v. 38-39).

This story contains a significant lesson for every serious student of God’s written word: we all need teachers. Some mistakenly believe today that when they begin to study the Bible as novices that they are already fully equipped to “rightly divide the Word of Truth” (2 Timothy_2:15 ). This self-reliant approach can lead well-intentioned but ill-equipped people to erroneous conclusions about what the Bible teaches. The Common Man’s Reference Bible annotation on John 16:13 says, “The Holy Ghost [Spirit] will guide a sincere and humble student into all truth who does not seek to justify his preconceived ideas” (Bible Analyzer 5.4.1.22).

God has provided us with trained and skilled teachers who have spent years studying the Bible and who are guided by God’s Holy Spirit with discernment, wisdom, and understanding. Each of us needs to tap into their reservoir of knowledge for principles on how to apply the Scriptures. Notice Paul’s questions about this learning process: Rom 10:14 KJV  “How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher?”

Albert Barnes’ Notes on the Bible identifies this Ethiopian as: “The humble, the teachable, the prayerful, the gentle of spirit – those who are willing to learn. A proud person who supposes that he already knows enough cannot be taught; a haughty person who has no respect for others, cannot learn of them; a person who is willing to believe nothing cannot be instructed. The first requisite, therefore, in the work of religion, as in respect to all kinds of knowledge, is a meek and docile spirit. See Matthew 18:3” (e-Sword 12.1). The word of God is a large and sometimes complex book with deep spiritual concepts that are not always self-evident. We need teachers to guide us.

This is not to say we cannot learn a limited amount on our own. David Guzik’s Enduring Word Commentary adds this explanation on v. 31: “This is the proper question of anyone who wants to understand the Bible. We should never feel bad if we need to be taught before we can understand many things…It is glorious when we come to understand the great truths of Scripture on our own, but God always has a place and a purpose for teachers in the body of Christ” (e-Sword 12.1).

There is also a place for utilizing Bible reference works. The Ultimate Cross-reference Library draws this important principle about personal Bible study from v. 31: “There is no necessity to reinvent the wheel. It is the height of egotism to suppose that we can go ourselves to the Bible alone, and learn all that God has for us in His Word, never utilizing cross references, concordances, commentaries and specialized topical studies, as though the Holy Spirit never assisted the labors of the writers and scholars that have gone before us. God will hold us responsible not only for what we know, but for what we could have known had we made the proper and diligent use of the means He has made available to us. Proper spiritual growth is dependent upon our careful and systematic study of the Word of God” (e-Sword 12.1).

We all could learn much more if only we applied ourselves to studying the Bible with the assistance of those who have “blazed the trail” before us! This enriching Bible narrative from Acts is for our learning (Romans 15:4). Let us all model this humble Gentile’s approach to biblical instruction.


Digging Deeper: The Gall of Bitterness

Author: Mr. Kenneth Frank | Faculty in Theology, Living Education


Estimated Reading Time: 5 min 30 sec

Did you know that God describes acts of rebellion and idolatry using expressions intended to turn our stomachs?

The Bible contains many colorful and descriptive phrases intended to make an impression on our minds. Hebrew can be very graphic as well as poetic. Understanding how this language conveys bold ideas is critical to capturing the message God wants us to understand.

Acts 8 describes a conversation between the apostle Peter and a magician named Simon. Simon had used sorcery and bewitched the people of Samaria, pretending to be some great one. Philip had been in Samaria preaching the things concerning the kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ (Acts 8:12). After hearing this, Simon was baptized and stood amazed at the miracles and signs Philip performed. The Jerusalem apostles sent Peter and John to lay hands on the new converts so that they might receive the Holy Spirit. When Simon saw that the Holy Spirit was conveyed by the laying on of hands by the apostles, he tried to buy this power. Peter rebuked and commanded him to repent, for Peter detected that Simon was “in the gall of bitterness and the bond of iniquity” (Acts 8:23). John Gill’s Exposition of the Bible explains that Simon “was in a state of nature and unregeneracy; under the power and dominion of covetousness, ambition, and hypocrisy; and in a way pernicious to himself, infectious to others, and ungrateful to God, and to good men…” (e-Sword 12.1). Simon begged Peter to pray to the Lord for his forgiveness.

This expression, “the gall of bitterness,” which appears only once in our Bible, has a colorful history. The NET Bible notes that it is “… an idiom meaning to be particularly envious or resentful of someone. In this case Simon was jealous of the apostles’ power to bestow the Holy Spirit by the laying on of hands, and wanted that power for himself” (e-Sword 12.1). This expression is a Hebraism and a superlative intended to convey “excessive bitterness.” Gall was also used in the OT for idolatry: ” Deuteronomy 29:18 KJV  Lest there should be among you man, or woman, or family, or tribe, whose heart turneth away this day from the LORD our God, to go and serve the gods of these nations; lest there should be among you a root that beareth gall and wormwood.” Albert Barnes’ Notes on the Bible explains that gall “denotes properly ‘bile,’ or ‘that bitter, yellowish-green fluid that is secreted in the liver.’ Hence, it means anything very bitter; and also any bad passion of the mind, as anger, malice, etc. We speak of ‘bitterness’ of mind, etc.” (e-Sword 12.1). B. W. Johnson’s Peoples New Testament adds that “The gall of reptiles was considered by ancients the source of their venom. The expression would denote moral corruption” (e-Sword 12.1).

The Greek word for “gall” is chole and appears only in Acts 8:23 and Matthew 27:34, referring to the drink of vinegar with gall that was offered to Christ while on the cross. Adam Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible describes the gall given to Jesus as “no more than bitters of any kind. It was a common custom to administer a stupefying potion compounded of sour wine, which is the same as vinegar, from the French vinaigre, frankincense, and myrrh, to condemned persons, to help to alleviate their sufferings, or so disturb their intellect that they might not be sensible of them” (e-Sword 12.1). This reminds us of Proverbs 31:6 KJV  “Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish, and wine unto those that be of heavy hearts.”

Bob Utley’s You Can Understand the Bible expands this expression: “The terms ‘gall’ (cholç) and ‘bitterness’ (pikros) both refer to a bitter spirit, usually associated with anger and apostasy (cf. Deuteronomy 29:18; Deuteronomy 32:28-33; Hebrews 12:15). Paul uses the term ‘bitter’ several times in lists of things to avoid (cf. Romans 3:14; Ephesians 4:31)” (e-Sword 12.1). He will later use a similar expression, appearing only once in Scripture, warning Christians, “Hebrews 12:15 KJV  Looking diligently lest any man fail of [fall away from] the grace of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and thereby many be defiled” (e-Sword 12.1). This expression seems to relate back to Deuteronomy 29:18. Adam Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible notes at Deuteronomy 29:18, “That is, as the apostle expresses it, Hebrews 3:12, An evil heart of unbelief departing from the living God; for to this place he evidently refers. It may also signify false doctrines, or idolatrous persons among themselves” (e-Sword 12.1). His note on Hebrews 12:15 adds, “The root of bitterness is here used metaphorically for a bad man, or a man holding unsound doctrines, and endeavoring to spread them in the Church” (Ibid.).

Paul describes troublemakers in God’s church who were influencing Hebrew Christians to apostatize back to Judaism! Bitterness and resentment are poisonous causing contagion in others. Portraying the nature of bitterness, The KJV Study Bible reports that “First it is hidden, but when it is discovered its noxious roots have spread and it springs up as something much bigger and more destructive (cf. Deuteronomy 29:18)” (Tecarta Bible App).

God’s people must be on guard to prevent some evil influence from making us bitter against God or other Christians leading to our departure from God and His church. Regrettably, such departures have occurred over the 2000-year history of the Church of God. By remaining steadfast with God through His written word as taught by His ministers we can prevent a gall or root of bitterness from growing inside us that troubles and defiles us leading to our departure from the faith. Christianity is a life or death struggle. By God’s Holy Spirit we will deflect Satan’s deadly blows. We must stay true to the “Shepherd and Bishop of our souls” (1 Peter 2:25).  

Digging Deeper: Apple of His Eye

Author: Mr. Kenneth Frank | Faculty in Theology, Living Education


Estimated Reading Time: 6 min 46 sec

Did you know that God’s care for His people is so protective and familial that He speaks of protecting them as the “apple of his eye”?

This phrase or one similar appears in five Scriptural passages. These verses reveal something special about the relationship of God to His people. What is an apple of the eye and what does each of these passages tell us about our relationship to God and His way of life? Examining each of these passages will enable us to dig deeper into God’s written word on this theme.

Our first passage is part of Moses’ final words to the new nation of Israel before his death. Israel was just about to cross the Jordan River to inherit the Promised Land. Deuteronomy 32:9-10 KJV reads: “For the LORD’S portion is his people; Jacob is the lot of his inheritance. He found him in a desert land, and in the waste howling wilderness; he led him about, he instructed him, he kept him as the apple of his eye.” 

An annotation in the NET Bible explains the word apple: “Heb ‘the little man.’ The term אִישׁוֹן (ʾishon) means literally ‘little man,’ perhaps because when one looks into another’s eyes he sees himself reflected there in miniature.” Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible explains its significance: “He kept him as the apple of his eye, with all the care and tenderness that could be, from the malignant influences of an open sky and air, and all the perils of an inhospitable desert. The pillar of cloud and fire was both a guide and a guard to them.” Continuing this idea, the Jamieson, Fausset and Brown Commentary reports: “It is a beautiful image, and, by alluding to the care with which every person defends his eye from injury, conveys a graphic idea of the tender, vigilant assiduity [care] with which the Lord watched over His people.” 

Our second passage from Psalm 17:8 is David’s prayer in which he requests, “Keep me as the apple of the eye, hide me under the shadow of thy wings.” The Dake Annotated Reference Bible comments that “It is an idiom for what is dearest to us; that which must have extreme care and protection. If the eye is lost one is blind. In creation God saw to it that the eye was well protected, being deeply entrenched in the skull and where the hands could easily protect it. He designed it to be further protected from dust and other harm by the eyelashes, eyelids, and eyebrows.” David understood God’s marvelous design of the human body and expressed his special request with this in mind. The NET Bible annotation reads, ” Heb ‘Protect me like the pupil, a daughter of an eye.’” Albert Barnes’ Notes on the Bible explains that daughter denotes, “that which is dependent on, or connected with (Gesenius, Lexicon), as the expression ‘daughters of a city’ denotes the small towns or villages lying around a city, and dependent on its jurisdiction.” 

Our third passage is Proverbs 7:2 KJV: “Keep my commandments, and live; and my law as the apple of thine eye.” Here God commands us to diligently observe His teachings. The Jamieson, Fausset and Brown Commentary explains, “As we guard the pupil of the eye from the least mote, which is sufficient to hurt it, so God’s law is so tender and holy a thing that the least violation of it in thought, word, or deed, is sin; and we are so to keep the law as to avoid any violation of it. The law resembles the pupil of the eye also in its being spiritually the organ of light, without which we should be in utter darkness.” Knowing this will impel our commandment-keeping! 

Our fourth passage is Lamentations 2:18 KJV :”Their heart cried unto the Lord, O wall of the daughter of Zion, let tears run down like a river day and night: give thyself no rest; let not the apple of thine eye cease.” This lamentation over the fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians was probably written by the Prophet Jeremiah. An annotation from the NET Bible explains: “Heb ‘the daughter of your eye.’ The term ‘eye’ functions as a metonymy for ‘tears’ that are produced by the eyes. Jeremiah exhorts personified Jerusalem to cry out to the LORD day and night without ceasing in repentance and genuine sorrow for its sins.” Adam Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible supports the notion of tears: ” בת עין bath ayin means either the pupil of the eye, or the tears. Tears are the produce of the eye, and are here elegantly termed the daughter of the eye. Let not thy tears cease.”

Our fifth and last passage is Zechariah 2:8 KJV: “For thus saith the LORD of hosts; After the glory hath he sent me unto the nations which spoiled you: for he that toucheth you toucheth the apple of his eye.” This section of Zechariah’s prophecy is God’ vision to His prophet. The NET Bible notes that, “A scribal emendation (tiqqun sopherim) has apparently altered an original ‘my eye’ to ‘his eye’ in order to allow the prophet to be the speaker throughout vv. Zechariah 2:8-9. This alleviates the problem of the LORD saying, in effect, that he has sent himself on the mission to the nations.” The reason for such a textual emendation is given by E.W. Bullinger in his Companion Bible: “The primitive text read ‘Mine eye’; but the Sopherim [Jewish scribes] say (App-33) that they altered this to ‘His’, regarding it as derogatory to Jehovah to read aloud such pronounced anthropomorphic expressions.” 

To explore even further, Adam Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible leads us along to this intriguing possibility: “בבבת עינו bebabath eyno, the babet of his eye. This is a remarkable expression. Any person, by looking into the eye of another, will see his own image perfectly expressed, though in extreme miniature, in the pupil. Does our English word babbet or baby come from this? And does not the expression mean that the eye of God is ever on his follower, and that his person is ever impressed on the eye, the notice, attention, providence, and mercy of God?”  The Pulpit Commentary provides us this touching reason for the usage of this term, “Nothing can more finely convey the idea of the exquisitely tender care of Jehovah for the objects of his love. Such interest the Bible teaches with frequency and fervour. Hence we read, ‘In all their affliction, he is afflicted.’ We read, ‘As a father pitieth his children,’ etc. We read, ‘Can a woman forget her sucking child?’ We read, ‘He is touched with a feeling of our infirmities,’ etc.”  

These five passages have expressed the depth of God’s love for His people Israel. However, we must remember that the God of the Old Testament is most often the One who became our Savior. Now we can better understand this New Testament passage from the words of Jesus Christ about His followers today. Matthew 25:40 KJV reads: “And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me.” All of these tender biblical words of God should fortify our appreciation for His abiding love and care. 


Digging Deeper: Hannah’s Messianic Prayer

Author: Mr. Kenneth Frank | Faculty in Theology, Living Education


Estimated Reading Time: 6 min

Did you know that the first time the Hebrew word for Messiah appears in the Old Testament is in a woman’s prayer thanking God for giving her a son after she had been barren (could not bear children) for many years?

This heart-warming story appears in 1 Samuel 1 and 2. For millennia, Christians have noted hundreds of Old Testament prophecies that they see fulfilled in the coming of Jesus the Christ (Messiah), as described in the New Testament. Most Jews do not accept that Jesus fulfills these many prophecies since they have a different understanding of the word messiah. However, for Christians, Jesus uniquely fulfilled hundreds of prophecies in His short earthly lifetime – including the prayer prophecy of this faithful woman. They may not realize that the first time the Hebrew word for messiah appears in the Bible comes from the intervention of God for a couple who raised a boy who became Israel’s last judge and the first of the order of prophets: Samuel (Acts 3:24; Acts 13:20). 

1 Samuel 1 describes Hannah as one of two wives of a man named Elkanah. She was barren, which was considered a misfortune, shame, and reproach (Genesis 30:23) in the ancient world because it was often viewed as divine punishment. Children were (and are) a blessing from God. Sometimes barren women were mistreated for what was beyond their control. Hannah received ridicule from Elkanah’s other wife, Peninnah (1 Samuel 1:6). At the tabernacle of God for a festival, Hannah prayed for a son and vowed to give him to the LORD as a Nazarite – i.e., one who fully dedicated his life to God’s service. 1 Samuel 2 is Hannah’s hymn of thanks and prophetic prayer for God’s gift of a son. In several ways, it parallel’s Mary’s prayer after the angel came to tell her that she would give birth to the Messiah (Luke 1:46-55), commonly called The Magnificat

The verse containing the Hebrew word for messiah is 1 Samuel 2:10 KJV: “The adversaries of the LORD shall be broken to pieces; out of heaven shall he thunder upon them: the LORD shall judge the ends of the earth; and he shall give strength unto his king, and exalt the horn of his anointed.” What makes this prophecy even more remarkable is that it was given during the time of the judges before the Israelite monarchy. On the surface, the word messiah does not appear in this text. However, looking into the Hebrew word behind our English text reveals the first use of this term. Our English text renders the word anointed. It is the Hebrew word mashiyach and literally means “anointed one” – i.e., a consecrated person. David Guzik’s Enduring Word Commentary explains: “This is the first place in the Bible where Jesus is referred to as the Messiah. ‘She first applied to him the remarkable epithet MESSIAH in Hebrew, CHRIST in Greek, and ANOINTED in English, which was adopted by David, Nathan, Ethan, Isaiah, Daniel, and the succeeding prophets of the Old Testament; and by the apostles and inspired writers of the New’ (Hales, cited in Clarke).”

Anointing with oil set apart individuals for God to serve in three sacred offices. Easton’s Bible Dictionary explains: “Thus priests (Exodus 28:41; Exodus 40:15; Numbers 3:3), prophets (1 Kings 19:16), and kings (1 Samuel 9:16; 1 Samuel 16:3; 2 Samuel 12:7) were anointed with oil, and so consecrated to their respective offices.” From that time on, such a person was considered God’s choice to serve him in a divinely-appointed role. The Hebrew word mashiyach appears 39 times in the Old Testament and is translated either as “anointed” or “messiah” in the King James Version. One time it was even used of a Gentile Persian king, Cyrus, in Isaiah 45:1. Confirming this, Webster’s 1828 Dictionary gives this noun definition: “ANOINTED, n. The Messiah, or Son of God, consecrated to the great office of Redeemer; called the Lord’s anointed. Cyrus is also called the Lord’s anointed. Isaiah 45.”

The Dake Annotated Reference Bible note on 1 Samuel 2:10 explains how the word is used in the Old Testament: “anointed Hebrew: mashiyach (H4899), anointed, referring usually to a consecrated person, as a king, priest, or saint–especially the Messiah. This is the first reference to the Messiah where this term is used. From this point on others take up the theme of God’s Anointed One–the Messiah (2:35; Psalm 2:2; 45:7; Isaiah 61:1; Daniel 9:25-26; John 1:41; 4:25). It is used of men and Messiah:

  1. Messiah (1 Samuel 2:10; 2:35; Psalm 2:2; Isaiah 61:1)
  2. Saul (1 Samuel 10:1; 12:3; 12:5; 24:6; 24:10; 26:9; 26:11; 26:16; 26:23; 2 Samuel 1:14; 1:16; 1:21)
  3. David (2 Samuel 19:21; 22:51; 23:1; Psalm 18:50; 20:6; 28:8; 132:10; 132:17)
  4. Solomon (2 Chronicles 6:42)
  5. Cyrus of Persia (Isaiah 45:1)
  6. Joshua (Habakkuk 3:13)
  7. Several unidentified men (Psalm 84:9; 89:38; 89:51; 105:15; Lamentations 4:20)”

The New Testament twice refers to Jesus as the Messiah by employing the word Messias in the King James Bible. Smith’s Bible Dictionary illustrates, “The word is twice used in the New Testament of Jesus. John 1:41; John 4:25. Authorized Version, ‘Messias.'” The New Testament was written in Greek. It’s most frequent equivalent word for mashiyach is christos, from which we derive the English word, Christ. Thus, when Christians refer to Jesus Christ they are calling him Messiah. Christ is not His surname but His office as the anointed Savior of the world. 

It is important for Christians when they read the word Christ in their New Testament that they immediately connect it to Messiah. Jesus knew He was the one anointed to this office: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised,  (19)  To preach the acceptable year of the Lord.” (Luke 4:18-19 KJV). Each time we refer to our Savior, Jesus Christ, we should remember that Christ refers to His office as God’s anointed Son who will someday sit upon the throne of David (Luke 1:32-33). We should also remember that the first person who was inspired by God to use this term was a godly woman, Hannah, whose prayer of gratitude was also a prophecy of the coming Messiah. 


Digging Deeper: Nathan’s Well-intentioned Mistake

Author: Mr. Kenneth Frank | Faculty, Living Education


Estimated Reading Time: 5 min

Did you know that an Old Testament prophet of God made a mistake in judgment when advising King David about building the Temple?

Nathan was a prophet during the reigns of both David and Solomon. He is first mentioned in the account of David’s arrangements for building the Temple. David had built himself a fabulous palace and thought it showed a lack of respect and sanctity that God’s worship center was merely a tent. Even though Nathan wanted to encourage David in his heart-felt desire to build God a permanent structure (a temple) for worship, he gave David advice he had to later retract. There are two passages of this account in the Old Testament: 2 Samuel 7 and 1 Chronicles 17.

Nathan’s mistake is a common one: not consulting God before acting on our decision or before advising someone else on their decision. Another example of this was in the time of Joshua when the Israelites made a league with the Gibeonites without first consulting God (Joshua 9:14). They were tricked into a long-term covenant they later regretted. When we fail to seek God before making major decisions, we are asking for trouble. Nathan’s advice to David was premature. An annotation on 2 Samuel 7:3 in Dake’s Annotated Reference Bible explains: “What Nathan said here was partially wrong. God was with David and approved of his desire to build a temple. He let David collect materials for the temple, but He had reasons for not letting David build it himself (1 Chronicles 22:1-16). Nathan later told David who would build it (1 Chronicles 17:4-15).”

The Temple would be built instead by David’s son, Solomon, because David had made great wars and had shed blood (1 Chronicles 22:8; 1 Chronicles 28:3). Solomon’s name means peaceful or peaceable. Adam Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible explains: “Heathens, Jews, and Christians, have all agreed that soldiers of any kind should have nothing to do with Divine offices.” The Jamieson Fausset and Brown Commentary adds further, “An innate feeling of propriety dictates the purification of the worshipper from all defilement when about to engage in the solemn rites of religion. Above all, persons polluted with blood were prohibited even among the pagan, of which many instances are found in the works of classical writers, (see Homer, ‘Iliad,’ 6:, 335; Euripides, ‘Iphigesia, in Tauris,’ 5:, 380; Vigil, ‘AEneid,’ 6:).” 

The Jamieson Fausset and Brown Commentary explains what went wrong with Nathan’s counsel: “The prophets, when following the impulse of their own feelings, or forming conjectural opinions, fell into frequent mistakes (see the notes at 1 Samuel 16:6; 2 Kings 4:27).” What was missing in Nathan’s advice? Robert Hawker’s comment in The Poor Man’s Commentary on 2 Samuel 7:3 explains: “Had the prophet first made it a subject of prayer, his directions would have been better. The Lord being with his people, as indeed he always is, doth not supersede the necessity of asking continually his wisdom to guide us.”  God expects us to consult Him. Nathan meant well and David’s desire was honorable (2 Chronicles 6:8) – but we learn from them that we must always consult the LORD in our plans. In our New Testament, the Apostle Paul provides us wise counsel of a similar nature in Philippians 4:6-7 (KJV throughout): “Be careful for nothing; but in every thing by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God.  (7)  And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.”

Even though Nathan made a mistake in judgment, God did not cast him aside. He went on to have a successful and lengthy career advising David and Solomon, two of the greatest kings during the heyday of Israel’s United Kingdom. He later reproved David for his adulterous affair with Bathsheba (2 Samuel 12:1-14), was charged with Solomon’s education (2 Samuel 12:25), and took a prominent role in Solomon’s accession to the throne (1 Kings 1:8-11, 1 Kings 1:22-45). His two sons, Zabad and Azariah, held high places in the king’s court (1 Chronicles 2:36; 1 Kings 4:5). He seems to have written a life of David (1 Chronicles 29:29) and another of Solomon (2 Chronicles 9:29). 

No doubt, sometime in your life you realized you had not consulted God before making a major decision. It may have not turned out well. We may even wonder why God would allow that decision to go astray. The Almighty is trying to teach us that He alone knows the end from the beginning. “Seek the LORD” appears 27 times in our Bible revealing an important lesson for us since it is so frequent. Isaiah 55:6 instructs us, “Seek ye the LORD while he may be found, call ye upon him while he is near.” This seeking has a condition attached: “But if from thence thou shalt seek the LORD thy God, thou shalt find him, if thou seek him with all thy heart and with all thy soul (Deuteronomy 4:29).” Our seeking God must be genuine and with pure hearts. King David composed under inspiration many of our psalms. Here is one that is especially fitting for this lesson in life: “Delight thyself also in the LORD; and he shall give thee the desires of thine heart. Commit thy way unto the LORD; trust also in him; and he shall bring it to pass (Psalm 37:4-5).”


Digging Deeper: God’s Two Books

Author: Mr. Kenneth Frank | Faculty, Living Education


Estimated Reading Time: 6 min

Did you know that God has provided humankind two revelations of His character and plan?

Christians are familiar with His written revelation called the Holy Bible. But what many do not realize is that long before a written record was provided for His people, God revealed Himself another way. This one has been available to all people, believers or non-believers alike no matter what language they speak. Throughout the centuries, avid Bible students have referred to these as “God’s Two Books.” Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible on Psalm 19 explains: “There are two excellent books which the great God has published for the instruction and edification of the children of men; this psalm treats of them both, and recommends them both to our diligent study. I. The book of the creatures, in which we may easily read the power and godhead of the Creator (Psalm 19:1-6). II. The book of the scriptures, which makes known to us the will of God concerning our duty. He shows the excellency and usefulness of that book (Psalm 19:7-11) and then teaches us how to improve it [our duty] (Psalm 19:12-14).” Both of these books reveal the glory of God!

Psalm 19 provides us a description of both of these revelations of God. The first one is creation itself, covered in Psalm 19:1-6. God has provided a theology through the natural world. By definition, theology is the study of God. Theologians have referred to this as “general revelation,” “natural revelation” or “natural theology.” The second revelation is described in Psalm 19:7-14, commonly called “special revelation,” “written revelation” or “supernatural theology.” All believers want to know more about the God they serve. They need to be diligent Bible students. However, they may be missing out on an entire second revelation because of a misunderstanding that there is today a war between science and religion. There is no such war between true science and biblical religion. God is the greatest scientist. Many famous human scientists have been dedicated Bible students such as Louis Pasteur, Isaac Newton, Johann Kepler, Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday, and Francis Bacon (The Henry Morris Study Bible, Appendix 7). God’s word holds us accountable for knowing God through what he has created. Notice Romans 1:19-20 (KJV throughout): “Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse.” 

During the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, many people worldwide have been sheltering at home or are quarantined under orders from civic officials. A report from a recent newsletter from the NPR radio program, Living On Earth, stated that “Americans spend more time inside than some whales spend time underwater. In many ways, we are an indoor species.” This study by Joe Allen, who is Director of the Healthy Buildings Program and Assistant Professor at Harvard’s T. H. Chan School of Public Health stated that “By the time we reach 80 years old, we will have spent 72 years of our lives indoors. However, these homes, offices, schools, and hospitals often lack fresh air and have an outsized impact on our wellbeing, health, creativity, and focus.”

After several weeks of this seclusion, many are now experiencing cabin fever with detrimental psychological effects. One of the most often recommended remedies from mental health experts has been to get outdoors, even onto one’s property or (if with safe distancing) to a local park. Indoors we are surrounded by things that humans have made. But outdoors, we are surrounded by what the Creator has made, much of which we often take for granted. Go outside and notice the blue sky, white clouds, and the various flora and fauna of our world. On a clear night, admire the astral bodies – even through common light pollution in many urban areas. Allow your mind to reflect on the biggest questions of life: Who are we?, How did we get here?, Where are we going?, What is wrong with the world?, and How may it be redeemed? By doing so, we free our minds even temporarily from our constant mundane concerns and pause to admire all that God has made for us to inherit once His redemption plan culminates. 

Psalm 19:7-9 describes an even greater revelation: God’s sacred word contained in the Holy Bible. In these few verses, God describes His word with six titles, six attributes, and six effects. As beautiful as are the manifestations of God’s glory seen in the heavens, still more beautiful and more magnificent is God’s sacred word. These descriptions deserve our closer, personal study as we approach Pentecost, which commemorates God’s giving His law (Exodus 20) and His Holy Spirit (Acts 2.) Putting these into graphic form would look like this:

Titles for God’s WordAttributes of God’s WordEffects of God’s Word
law (Torah Hebrew word often translated “law” but more fully referring to “instruction,” “teaching,” or “doctrine”)perfectconverting the soul
testimonysuremaking wise the simple
statutesrightrejoicing the heart
commandmentpureenlightening the eyes
fearcleanenduring forever
judgmentstruerighteous altogether

Psalm 19:11-14 reach into our innermost beings to challenge us to deal with known and unknown sins. It assures us that keeping God’s word provides a great reward (v. 11). Then v. 12 asks God to cleanse us from secret faults – things we may try to hide from God or even sins of which we are yet unaware. The spiritual lessons of the Days of Unleavened Bread challenge us to continue this cleansing process. We need God to show us where we are yet falling short of his grace (Romans 3:23). Then in v. 13 we consider the extremely dangerous presumptuous sins – sins that people commit deliberately. Only God can thoroughly cleanse us of secret faults and keep us from presumptuous sins (vv. 12-13). Living by God’s Two Books then enables us to pray sincerely, “Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of my heart, be acceptable in thy sight, O LORD, my strength, and my redeemer (Psalm 19:14).”